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Alces alces, commonly called moose in North America and Eurasian elk in Europe, have a circumpolar distribution in the boreal forests of the Northern Hemisphere.Moose is the largest deer in the world.



Males are much larger than females. A full-grown bull moose (male) weighs from 800 to 1200 pounds. The smaller adult cow (female) is about 2/3 as large (600 to 800 lbs.). Moose stand 5 to 6.5 feet tall at the shoulder and are 7.5 to 10 feet in length. They have a short tail, 2.5 to 3.5 inches.

Moose are easy to recognize by their large size, long dark to reddish brown to black color hair, high humped shoulders, long pale legs, and a huge, pendulous muzzle. Moose have a large dewlap, called by some a pendant ‘bell’, under their throat, and large ears.

Moose hang out in wet, swampy areas or in aspen and willow thickets and spruce forests. During summer months, they are most active at dawn and dusk. Several may gather near streams and lakes to feed on willows, water lilies, and other aquatic vegetation. When black flies torment them, moose can nearly submerge themselves or roll in a wallow to acquire a protective mud coating

Moose can be found in a range of habitats in the cold, northern regions of the globe that have seasonal snow cover. They inhabit the taiga and temperate forest biomes, including the tundra-subalpine zone. Forest types include boreal, broadleaf and mixed (coniferous-deciduous). Within these forests, they prefer the early successional stage, where forage is in abundance due to disturbance. Fire, logging, flooding, or glacial action greatly increase the quality and quantity of forage for moose and, ultimately, moose density.



Life Cycle: During the rut or mating season (mid-September to late October), bull moose roll in a muddy, urine-scented wallow. Cows will also roll in it. Bulls do not gather a harem, but instead stay with one cow for about a week and then with another. Bulls thrash brush and bark with their antlers, marking their territory. Occasionally bulls will battle, but generally threat displays prompt one to withdraw. If horns interlock, both may die. Cows usually first breed when they are 2 1/2 years old, but may breed as younger yearlings if they are on good range.

After a gestation of 8 months, one or two calves are born. In the picture above the cow has two calves. On the left, you can see one calf. Weak at birth, the gangling calves remain hidden and inactive for several days. They are light colored but their coat quickly turns dark brown. Unlike most other calves in the deer family, they don’t have spots. Within a couple of weeks the calves can swim; at about 6 months they are weaned. The calves remain with their mother for a year, but she drives them away the following spring, making room for her new offspring to arrive.



Predation: Wolves, brown or grizzly bears, black bears, and cougars are major predators of moose, and to a lesser extent coyotes and Amur tigers. Major predators can have such an impact on moose populations that they can slow their population growth and hold them below the carrying capacity of the habitat. Whether or not predators can hold (regulate) a moose population at an equilibrium point is controversial. Predation by bears tends to be the highest in the spring when calves are the most vulnerable. Predation by wolves is higher in the winter when snow depths are high enough to impede the movement of moose. Moose aggressively defend themselves and their young with their robust antlers and sharp hooves.

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