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Rose Stem Girdler

Rose Stem Girdler,This beetle is found in the eastern region of the united states NY, NJ, Connecticut.

Rose Stem Girdler

Rose Stem Girdler

The rose stem girdler is a flatheaded beetle, the larva of which burrows in berry canes. The larva has two small spines at the tip of its abdomen (shown right) The adult beetles fly in the spring and females lay eggs on the canes. Larvae chew through the bottoms of eggs into canes. Larvae feed in a spiral pattern around the cambium (under the bark) and girdle canes. They form a swollen, gall-like area. The upper portions of canes are killed and break off easily during the summer. Protect canes from egg-laying females with an insecticide spray just after bloom. Consistent pruning out of dead and dying canes can be effective.

Multiflora rose (Rosa multiflora, C.P. Thunberg), is a noxious, non-native shrub found throughout united states NY, NJ, Connecticut. Native to Japan, Korea, and eastern China, this rose was introduced into the United States for ornamental roses. Later, Multiflora rose was also planted in highway median strips as crash barriers and to reduce glare from headlights. Multiflora rose is now considered a invasive weed because of its aggressive growth habit. This rose forms impenetrable thickets that exclude native plant species.

Life Cycle: The bronze birch borer, Agrilus anxius Gory, occurs in most species of birch grown in Nebraska, but is particularly destructive to paper birch. Adult beetles are about 3/8 inch long, slender, and metallic bronze. Beetles emerge from infested trees in late May and are present until July, feeding on birch leaves for several days after mating and before laying eggs. Eggs are deposited under bark and in cracks in the bark. The larvae burrow directly through the bark into the cambium layer. Heavy infestations cause raised burrows, easily detected on the bark surface. Adults prefer weakened trees for egg laying. Healthy, vigorous trees usually are less likely to be infested. Cultural practices are very important in the prevention of bronze birch borer injury. Birches should be planted where they are shaded in the afternoon – avoid southern or western exposures.

Rose Stem Girdler

Rose Stem Girdler

They are best suited for shaded, damp situations and should be watered regularly. Plant a ground cover over the root area to keep roots cool and moist. If ground covers are not feasible, do not mow grass over the root area during summer. Except for river birch, most birches, and particularly the paper birch are not well adapted to Nebraska and are a questionable choice for home landscapes. The rose stem girdler, Agrilus aurichalceus, attacks Rugosa and other bush-type roses. There is only one generation per year. The small, dark bronze beetles emerge from infested stems in May and June.

Adult females deposit eggs on woody stems of newer growth. Larvae feed on the cambium beneath, producing a swelling of the canes as the plant tries to compensate for the injury. Eventually the stem or cane is girdled and dies, resulting in “flags” of dead leaves on infested bushes, which, if the attack is severe, can be severely set back or even killed. Spraying of the canes at least twice in late May and early June is suggested to prevent infestation. Infested canes should be removed immediately, run through a chipper and composted.

Damage: Larvae create tunnels and galleries that are flattened, sinuous and overlapping. They usually lie just beneath the bark, and infested areas may become bumpy or swollen over time, due to injury to the plant growth layer (cambium). Branches, twigs, canes or roots often become girdled and may die as flatheaded borers chew tunnels in spiral fashion around their perimeters.

Borers attack nearly all trees and shrubs to some degree, but certain species are more susceptible to infestation. Those trees which seem somewhat more prone to borer damage in Nebraska are ash, birch (paper or white), cottonwood (seedless), black locust, hickory, linden and willow. Newly set tree plantings, including fruit orchard species are highly susceptible during the first years when they are under stress. Establishment and root system development is a critical time for new trees and they must be carefully tended, well-watered, fertilized and protected from borers during this period.

Rose Stem Girdler

Rose Stem Girdler

Control: Fields that are to be cropped and have a high potential for grasshopper damage should be seeded as early as agronomically and environmentally possible. Established, vigorously growing plants can tolerate more injury than younger plants. This may not be an effective option with late season crops such as soybeans, dry beans, corn, sunflower and safflower, because an early seeding date for these crops may mean they would still be small when the grasshopper hatch is beginning.Early seeding of early crops like small grains and canola may not prevent crop injury, but it will reduce the amount of economic damage and allow the producer a longer lead time for insecticide application.

In addition, early seeded crops will mature earlier and the risk of late season migration of adult grasshoppers into these fields should be lessened, thus reducing late season crop damage and egg laying. Fewer acres will have to be treated and less insecticide is necessary to obtain control, thus reducing cost.Grasshoppers are killed before they have had the opportunity to cause significant crop loss.Smaller grasshoppers are more susceptible to pesticides than larger hoppers.Early treatment before grasshoppers reach maturity prevents egg deposition, which may help reduce the potential grasshopper threat for the following crop year.

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